How to launch tests for django reusable app?

Can I launch tests for my reusable Django app without incorporating this app into a project?

My app uses some models, so it is necessary to provide (TEST_)DATABASE_* settings. Where should I store them and how should I launch tests?

For a Django project, I can run tests with manage.py test; when I use django-admin.py test with my standalone app, I get:

Error: Settings cannot be imported, because environment variable DJANGO_SETTINGS_MODULE is undefined.

What are the best practises here?


ANSWERS:


For my reusable app(django-moderation) I use buildout. I create example_project, i use it with buildout to run tests on it. I simply put my app inside of settings of example_project.

When i want to install all dependencies used by my project and run tests, i only need to do following:

  • Run: python bootstrap.py
  • Run buildout:

    bin/buildout

  • Run tests for Django 1.1 and Django 1.2:

    bin/test-1.1 bin/test-1.2

Here you can find tutorial how to configure reusable app to use buildout for deployment and tests run:

Here you will find example buildout config which i use in my project:


The correct usage of Django (>= 1.4) test runner is as follows:

import django, sys
from django.conf import settings

settings.configure(DEBUG=True,
               DATABASES={
                    'default': {
                        'ENGINE': 'django.db.backends.sqlite3',
                    }
                },
               ROOT_URLCONF='myapp.urls',
               INSTALLED_APPS=('django.contrib.auth',
                              'django.contrib.contenttypes',
                              'django.contrib.sessions',
                              'django.contrib.admin',
                              'myapp',))

try:
    # Django <= 1.8
    from django.test.simple import DjangoTestSuiteRunner
    test_runner = DjangoTestSuiteRunner(verbosity=1)
except ImportError:
    # Django >= 1.8
    django.setup()
    from django.test.runner import DiscoverRunner
    test_runner = DiscoverRunner(verbosity=1)

failures = test_runner.run_tests(['myapp'])
if failures:
    sys.exit(failures)

DjangoTestSuiteRunner and DiscoverRunner have mostly compatible interfaces.

For more information you should consult the "Defining a Test Runner" docs:


For Django 1.7 it's slightly different. Assuming you have the following directory structure for app foo:

foo
|── docs
|── foo
│   ├── __init__.py
│   ├── models.py
│   ├── urls.py
│   └── views.py
└── tests
    ├── foo_models
    │   ├── __init__.py
    │   ├── ...
    │   └── tests.py
    ├── foo_views 
    │   ├── __init__.py
    │   ├── ...
    │   └── tests.py
    ├── runtests.py
    └── urls.py

This is how the Django project itself structures its tests.

You want to run all tests in foo/tests/ with the command:

python3 runtests.py

You also want to be able to run the command from a parent directory of tests, e.g. by Tox or Invoke, just like python3 foo/tests/runtests.py.

The solution I present here is quite reusable, only the app's name foo must be adjusted (and additional apps, if necessary). They can not be installed via modify_settings, because it would miss the database setup.

The following files are needed:

urls.py

"""
This urlconf exists because Django expects ROOT_URLCONF to exist. URLs
should be added within the test folders, and use TestCase.urls to set them.
This helps the tests remain isolated.
"""

urlpatterns = []

runtests.py

#!/usr/bin/env python3
import glob
import os
import sys

import django
from django.conf import settings
from django.core.management import execute_from_command_line


BASE_DIR = os.path.abspath(os.path.dirname(__file__))
sys.path.append(os.path.abspath(os.path.join(BASE_DIR, '..')))

# Unfortunately, apps can not be installed via ``modify_settings``
# decorator, because it would miss the database setup.
CUSTOM_INSTALLED_APPS = (
    'foo',
    'django.contrib.admin',
)

ALWAYS_INSTALLED_APPS = (
    'django.contrib.auth',
    'django.contrib.contenttypes',
    'django.contrib.sessions',
    'django.contrib.messages',
    'django.contrib.staticfiles',
)

ALWAYS_MIDDLEWARE_CLASSES = (
    'django.contrib.sessions.middleware.SessionMiddleware',
    'django.middleware.common.CommonMiddleware',
    'django.middleware.csrf.CsrfViewMiddleware',
    'django.contrib.auth.middleware.AuthenticationMiddleware',
    'django.contrib.messages.middleware.MessageMiddleware',
    'django.middleware.clickjacking.XFrameOptionsMiddleware',
)


settings.configure(
    SECRET_KEY="django_tests_secret_key",
    DEBUG=False,
    TEMPLATE_DEBUG=False,
    ALLOWED_HOSTS=[],
    INSTALLED_APPS=ALWAYS_INSTALLED_APPS + CUSTOM_INSTALLED_APPS,
    MIDDLEWARE_CLASSES=ALWAYS_MIDDLEWARE_CLASSES,
    ROOT_URLCONF='tests.urls',
    DATABASES={
        'default': {
            'ENGINE': 'django.db.backends.sqlite3',
        }
    },
    LANGUAGE_CODE='en-us',
    TIME_ZONE='UTC',
    USE_I18N=True,
    USE_L10N=True,
    USE_TZ=True,
    STATIC_URL='/static/',
    # Use a fast hasher to speed up tests.
    PASSWORD_HASHERS=(
        'django.contrib.auth.hashers.MD5PasswordHasher',
    ),
    FIXTURE_DIRS=glob.glob(BASE_DIR + '/' + '*/fixtures/')

)

django.setup()
args = [sys.argv[0], 'test']
# Current module (``tests``) and its submodules.
test_cases = '.'

# Allow accessing test options from the command line.
offset = 1
try:
    sys.argv[1]
except IndexError:
    pass
else:
    option = sys.argv[1].startswith('-')
    if not option:
        test_cases = sys.argv[1]
        offset = 2

args.append(test_cases)
# ``verbosity`` can be overwritten from command line.
args.append('--verbosity=2')
args.extend(sys.argv[offset:])

execute_from_command_line(args)

Some of the settings are optional; they improve speed or a more realistic environment.

The second argument points to the current directory. It makes use of the feature of providing a path to a directory to discover tests below that directory.


I've ended with such solution (it was inspired by solution found in django-voting):

Create file eg. 'runtests.py' in tests dir containing:

import os, sys
from django.conf import settings

DIRNAME = os.path.dirname(__file__)
settings.configure(DEBUG = True,
                   DATABASE_ENGINE = 'sqlite3',
                   DATABASE_NAME = os.path.join(DIRNAME, 'database.db'),
                   INSTALLED_APPS = ('django.contrib.auth',
                                     'django.contrib.contenttypes',
                                     'django.contrib.sessions',
                                     'django.contrib.admin',
                                     'myapp',
                                     'myapp.tests',))


from django.test.simple import run_tests

failures = run_tests(['myapp',], verbosity=1)
if failures:
    sys.exit(failures)

It allows to run tests by python runtests.py command. It doesn't require installed dependencies (eg. buildout) and it doesn't harm tests run when app is incorporated into bigger project.



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