Common Ruby Idioms

One thing I love about ruby is that mostly it is a very readable language (which is great for self-documenting code)

However, inspired by this question: Ruby Code explained and the description of how ||= works in ruby, I was thinking about the ruby idioms I don't use, as frankly, I don't fully grok them.

So my question is, similar to the example from the referenced question, what common, but not obvious, ruby idioms do I need to be aware of to be a truly proficient ruby programmer?

By the way, from the referenced question

a ||= b 

is equivalent to

if a == nil || a == false
  a = b
end

(Thanks to Ian Terrell for the correction)

Edit: It turns out this point is not totally uncontroversial. The correct expansion is in fact

(a || (a = (b))) 

See these links for why:

Thanks to Jörg W Mittag for pointing this out.


ANSWERS:


The magic if clause that lets the same file serve as a library or a script:

if __FILE__ == $0
  # this library may be run as a standalone script
end

Packing and unpacking arrays:

# put the first two words in a and b and the rest in arr
a,b,*arr = *%w{a dog was following me, but then he decided to chase bob}
# this holds for method definitions to
def catall(first, *rest)
  rest.map { |word| first + word }
end
catall( 'franken', 'stein', 'berry', 'sense' ) #=> [ 'frankenstein', 'frankenberry', 'frankensense' ]

The syntatical sugar for hashes as method arguments

this(:is => :the, :same => :as)
this({:is => :the, :same => :as})

Hash initializers:

# this
animals = Hash.new { [] }
animals[:dogs] << :Scooby
animals[:dogs] << :Scrappy
animals[:dogs] << :DynoMutt
animals[:squirrels] << :Rocket
animals[:squirrels] << :Secret
animals #=> {}
# is not the same as this
animals = Hash.new { |_animals, type| _animals[type] = [] }
animals[:dogs] << :Scooby
animals[:dogs] << :Scrappy
animals[:dogs] << :DynoMutt
animals[:squirrels] << :Rocket
animals[:squirrels] << :Secret
animals #=> {:squirrels=>[:Rocket, :Secret], :dogs=>[:Scooby, :Scrappy, :DynoMutt]}

metaclass syntax

x = Array.new
y = Array.new
class << x
  # this acts like a class definition, but only applies to x
  def custom_method
     :pow
  end
end
x.custom_method #=> :pow
y.custom_method # raises NoMethodError

class instance variables

class Ticket
  @remaining = 3
  def self.new
    if @remaining > 0
      @remaining -= 1
      super
    else
      "IOU"
    end
  end
end
Ticket.new #=> Ticket
Ticket.new #=> Ticket
Ticket.new #=> Ticket
Ticket.new #=> "IOU"

Blocks, procs, and lambdas. Live and breathe them.

 # know how to pack them into an object
 block = lambda { |e| puts e }
 # unpack them for a method
 %w{ and then what? }.each(&block)
 # create them as needed
 %w{ I saw a ghost! }.each { |w| puts w.upcase }
 # and from the method side, how to call them
 def ok
   yield :ok
 end
 # or pack them into a block to give to someone else
 def ok_dokey_ok(&block)
    ok(&block)
    block[:dokey] # same as block.call(:dokey)
    ok(&block)
 end
 # know where the parentheses go when a method takes arguments and a block.
 %w{ a bunch of words }.inject(0) { |size,w| size + 1 } #=> 4
 pusher = lambda { |array, word| array.unshift(word) }
 %w{ eat more fish }.inject([], &pusher) #=> ['fish', 'more', 'eat' ]

This slideshow is quite complete on the main Ruby idioms, as in:

  • Swap two values:

    x, y = y, x

  • Parameters that, if not specified, take on some default value

    def somemethod(x, y=nil)

  • Batches up extraneous parameters into an array

    def substitute(re, str, *rest)

And so on...


Some more idioms:

Use of the %w, %r and %( delimiters

%w{ An array of strings %}
%r{ ^http:// }
%{ I don't care if the string has 'single' or "double" strings }

Type comparison in case statements

def something(x)
  case x
    when Array
      # Do something with array
    when String
      # Do something with string
    else
      # You should really teach your objects how to 'quack', don't you?
  end
end

... and overall abuse of the === method in case statements

case x
  when 'something concrete' then ...
  when SomeClass then ...
  when /matches this/ then ...
  when (10...20) then ...
  when some_condition >= some_value then ...
  else ...
end

Something that should look natural to Rubyists, but maybe not so to people coming from other languages: the use of each in favor of for .. in

some_iterable_object.each{|item| ... }

In Ruby 1.9+, Rails, or by patching the Symbol#to_proc method, this is becoming an increasingly popular idiom:

strings.map(&:upcase)

Conditional method/constant definition

SOME_CONSTANT = "value" unless defined?(SOME_CONSTANT)

Query methods and destructive (bang) methods

def is_awesome?
  # Return some state of the object, usually a boolean
end

def make_awesome!
  # Modify the state of the object
end

Implicit splat parameters

[[1, 2], [3, 4], [5, 6]].each{ |first, second| puts "(#{first}, #{second})" }

I like this:

str = "Something evil this way comes!"
regexp = /(\w[aeiou])/

str[regexp, 1] # <- This

Which is (roughly) equivalent to:

str_match = str.match(regexp)
str_match[1] unless str_match.nil?

Or at least that's what I've used to replace such blocks.


I would suggest reading through the code of popular and well designed plugins or gems from people you admire and respect.

Some examples I've run into:

if params[:controller] == 'discussions' or params[:controller] == 'account'
  # do something here
end

corresponding to

if ['account', 'discussions'].include? params[:controller]
  # do something here
end

which later would be refactored to

if ALLOWED_CONTROLLERS.include? params[:controller]
  # do something here
end

Here's a few, culled from various sources:

use "unless" and "until" instead of "if not" and "while not". Try not to use "unless" when an "else" condition exists, though.

Remember you can assign multiple variables at once:

a,b,c = 1,2,3

and even swap variable without a temp:

a,b = b,a

Use trailing conditionals where appropriate, e.g.

do_something_interesting unless want_to_be_bored?

Be aware of a commonly-used but not instantly obvious (to me at least) way of defining class methods:

class Animal
  class<<self
    def class_method
      puts "call me using Animal.class_method"
    end
  end
end

Some references:


By the way, from the referenced question

a ||= b 

is equivalent to

if a == nil   
  a = b 
end

That's subtly incorrect, and is a source of bugs in newcomers' Ruby applications.

Since both (and only) nil and false evaluate to a boolean false, a ||= b is actually (almost*) equivalent to:

if a == nil || a == false
  a = b
end

Or, to rewrite it with another Ruby idiom:

a = b unless a

(*Since every statement has a value, these are not technically equivalent to a ||= b. But if you're not relying on the value of the statement, you won't see a difference.)


I maintain a wiki page that covers some Ruby idioms and formatting:


You can deepcopy with Marshaling object easily. - taken from The Ruby Programming Language

def deepcopy(o)
  Marshal.load(Marshal.dump(o))
end

Note that files and I/O streams, as well as Method and Binding objects, are too dynamic to be marshaled; there would be no reliable way to restore their state.


a = (b && b.attribute) || "default"

is roughly:

if ( ! b.nil? && ! b == false) && ( ! b.attribute.nil? && ! b.attribute.false) a = b
else a = "default"

I use this when b is a record which may or may not have been found, and I need to get one of its attributes.


I always forget the exact syntax of this shorthand if else statement (and the name of the operator. comments anyone?) I think it's widely used outside of ruby, but in case someone else wants the syntax here it is:

refactor < 3 ? puts("No need to refactor YET") : puts("You need to refactor this into a  method")

expands to

if refactor < 3
  puts("No need to refactor YET")
else
  puts("You need to refactor this into a  method")
end

update

called the ternary operator:

return myvar ? myvar.size : 0


I like how If-then-elses or case-when could be shortened because they return a value:

if test>0
  result = "positive"
elsif test==0
  result = "zero"
else
  result = "negative"
end

could be rewriten

result = if test>0
  "positive"
elsif test==0
  "zero"
else
  "negative"
end

The same could be applied to case-when:

result = case test
when test>0 ; "positive"
when test==0 ; "zero"
else "negative"
end

Array.pack and String.unpack for working with binary files:

# extracts four binary sint32s to four Integers in an Array
data.unpack("iiii") 

method missing magick

class Dummy  
  def method_missing(m, *args, &block)  
    "You just called method with name #{m} and arguments- #{args}"  
  end  
end

Dummy.new.anything(10, 20)
=> "You just called method with name anything and arguments- [10, 20]"

if you call methods that not exists in ruby objects, ruby interpreter will call method called 'method_missing' if its defined, you could user this for some tricks, like writing api wrappers, or dsl, where you don;t know all methods and parameters names


Nice question!

As I think the more intuitive & faster the code is, a better software we’re building. I will show you how I express my thoughts using Ruby in little snippets of code. Read more here

Map

We can use map method in different ways:

user_ids = users.map { |user| user.id }

Or:

user_ids = users.map(&:id)

Sample

We can use rand method:

[1, 2, 3][rand(3)]

Shuffle:

[1, 2, 3].shuffle.first

And the idiomatic, simple and easiest way... sample!

[1, 2, 3].sample

Double Pipe Equals / Memoization

As you said in the description, we can use memoization:

some_variable ||= 10
puts some_variable # => 10

some_variable ||= 99
puts some_variable # => 10

Static Method / Class Method

I like to use class methods, I feel it is a really idiomatic way to create & use classes:

GetSearchResult.call(params)

Simple. Beautiful. Intuitive. What happens in the background?

class GetSearchResult
  def self.call(params)
    new(params).call
  end

  def initialize(params)
    @params = params
  end

  def call
    # ... your code here ...
  end
end

For more info to write idiomatic Ruby code, read here



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